Formaldehyde Emissions

Formaldehyde in Your Home

iStock 000003699790XSmall Formaldehyde Emissions

Formaldehyde is a compound chemical made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that is found literally everywhere, since it occurs naturally and is synthesized for industrial use in everyday products. The list of household and personal care products that contain small amounts of formaldehyde is endless, and it can also be found in processed wood products, like furniture, siding, and flooring. While it is a very useful chemical used to make clothes permanent-pressed, as a preservative, and as part of the makeup of adhesive products, it is also dangerous and exposure can wreak havoc with your health in high concentration.

Reactions to formaldehyde vary. Some people have no reaction, while others have severe and potentially life-threatening response to exposure. Symptoms include eye, nose, and throat irritation, respiratory difficulties like wheezing and coughing, skin rash, headaches and fatigue, and in some cases, extreme allergic reactions. Allergies can develop at any time, even in a person who has never been prone to them. Formaldehyde is also a suspected carcinogen and is proven to trigger attacks in people with asthma.

The good news is that formaldehyde emissions decrease over time, so a house built in the 1970s before there were any emission standards in place is not likely to still leach formaldehyde gas into your home. The most exposure occurs when the wood product is newly installed. Formaldehyde, unlike some other chemicals found in the home, does not accumulate in the fat cells over time.

Source of Formaldehyde Emissions

A great deal of wood flooring is manufactured of layers of wood particles or veneers pressed together and sealed with adhesives containing urea formaldehyde resin. Low-end flooring, even made from materials that you expect to be “green” can be manufactured with this adhesive, and have formaldehyde emissions of 0.237ppm as a result. Because the real danger is in the manufacturing process, it’s a mistake to assume something is eco-friendly because it is made from an eco-friendly product. Before you make a decision to buy, make sure you get all the facts.

Formaldehyde Ratings

European standards recommended in 2000 by the European Panel Industry defined formaldehyde emissions ratings. Original ratings included E1, measuring 9mg/100g and below, E2, measuring greater than 9mg/100g to below 30mg/100g, and E3, measuring a greater than 30mg/100g ratio. Pressure for more stringent standards led to a new ratings classification, E0, based on emissions measuring 0.5mg per liter and below. Europeans test methodology is based on the Perforator Test Method, which measures the formaldehyde levels inside the wood specimen.

Japan has also defined formaldehyde emissions ratings. The Japanese JIS/JAS Formaldehyde Adhesive Emission Standards, defined by the set forth by the Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) and Japanese Agricultural Standards (JAS) departments, use a different testing methodology, the Desiccator Test Method which measures emissions released from the wood. Ratings are assigned in four categories, F*, F**, F***, and F****, with F**** having the lowest level of formaldehyde emissions below 0.005 mg/m2h. Comparing these two standards is difficult due to the different methods and to different units of measurement.

The United States has been slow to address this concern, but a rating system released in 2007 by the California Air Regulatory Board (CARB) aims to correct that. The Airborne Toxic Control Measure (ATCM) specifies staggered implementation dates ranging from 2009 to 2010 (depending on product) for a two-phase plan that calls for compliance on emissions levels in particleboard, MDF, thin MDF and hardwood plywood. CARB studies suggest that up to 5% of formaldehyde emissions are generated by composite wood products.

Phase 1 of the CARB plan already in effect requires that adhesive formaldehyde emissions measure equal to or less than 0.08 ppm (parts per million), a figure that exceeds OSHA standards already in play.

Phase 2, set for January 1, 2010, will force formaldehyde emissions in adhesives even lower, to 0.05 ppm, a higher standard than that of the European E0.

Logistical Reality

The cost of trying to regulate a global building industry is significant on every level. Enforcement of a U.S. standard presents a problem of staggering proportion in terms of manpower and logistics, considering how much processed wood is imported from overseas and the sheer volume of product that would have to be monitored. For U.S. manufacturers, the burden of retooling to meet new standards falls to them and ultimately to the consumer, because the cost is likely be passed on.

The Composite Panel Association (CPA) and other industry leaders have voiced some concerns about this ruling and asked for modifications. Citing costs and the difficulty of testing finished products, Bill Perdue, of the American Home Furnishings Alliance, says the impact could be tremendous, especially as it affects small manufacturers, like thousands of cabinet and furniture makers. Businesses located in California will face a distinct disadvantage in supply.

For the California Air Regulatory Board, the choice was clear and the vote unanimous, health concerns supersede cost. Expectations are that the rest of the country will follow suit, and U.S. manufacturers will be eager to get onboard and stay ahead of legislation sure to follow.

The Future is Here

There are already products on the market that have low VOC (volatile organic compound) emissions, some of them for years. In order to know exactly what you’re getting, find out what rating the flooring has. Look for E0, E1, F****, P1 or P2 CARB ratings for the most environmentally sound investment, and if the flooring is to be glued down, ask for VOC-free adhesives. It may cost a little more, but cleaner air will be worth it.

Related posts:


This Learning Center belongs to you. We invite you to contribute to it.

Have you got a question about what you've read here? Tell us about in the comments section. 

If you're an expert in the field, and see something that is inaccurate, tell us, and we'll make the correction. 

Also, if you think there is important information that is absent from any of these articles, please let us know!

{ 2 trackbacks }

Logan’s Room Makeover
May 22, 2014 at 11:49 am
Shopping for Eco-Friendly Hardwood Flooring
November 13, 2014 at 11:14 am

{ 60 comments… read them below or add one }

Janet Orser October 6, 2014 at 6:46 pm

Hi Rob, I sent a response back to your email. Thanks for getting back to me. I have arranged for air quality testing next week and have also found out that my flooring was made in China, from the Distributor.
Not sure how to proceed after the testing. Do you know how long emissions will continue? Should this flooring be removed (as I still suffer multiple symptoms) or will a new floor just start the mess over again? Is there a Gov’t agency I can consult with?
Many thanks for your help with this,

jeanette October 7, 2014 at 9:37 pm

My son has asthma, severe allergies and sleep problems.
I am looking at your Jasper Engineered Hardwood – Handscraped Birch Collection
Birch – Texas brown / 5″ / 1/2″ / Random Lengths
SKU: 10075493
Is this flooring CARB Complaint and where is it manufactured?


Andrea Doby October 27, 2014 at 6:41 pm

how do I test my floor to see what the emission levels are?

Rob Jones October 27, 2014 at 9:32 pm

Every floor product should already have a rating for this, and if you’re buying new flooring materials, it’s a good conversation to have with your vendor. But, if you’re in doubt as to the air quality in your space in general, you can hire an indoor air quality professional to test for emissions to give you a sense of your existing situation.

I hope this helps!

Nancy November 1, 2014 at 11:18 pm

I had a beautiful Pergo laminate floor installed 1 month ago. 2 – 3 weeks after installation I started getting an itchy rash. It is now all over my trunk area and my hairline. Could this be a reaction to the formaldehyde in the flooring? Went to urgent care today and got a course of prednisone to see if it will clear up. Sure do not want to tear up the new floor, but can’t live with this reaction either.
Have you heard of this?

Rob Jones November 5, 2014 at 6:25 pm

Hi Nancy,

I’m sorry to hear about your issues. One thing to consider would be a home air quality inspection, just to help you to pinpoint any trouble areas in your home which may be adding to this situation. Once you determine the source, if any, you’ll be in a better position to make decisions about what to remove, and how to treat your symptoms too.

I hope that helps!

Scott January 5, 2015 at 4:34 am

I am purchasing an apartment with Chinese bamboo flooring. I live in an area where we leave the windows open all day. Does anyone know if this is helpful in reducing the formaldehyde emission? Also, do air purifiers help? Thanks, Scott

cathy January 15, 2015 at 10:52 pm

I have suffered from a 3 and a half long migraine that left me unable to even be able to get up.
I able still having getting them every day .It is controlling my life but they have tried to connect it to my lupus. My dog also started loosing his hair only his top coat, the vet tied this to old age. I now am tying them together and wondering if they are related to my new Bruce solid wood flooring . Where can I find a air quality test in my small town in Tn. ? Please email me back.

Janet Lane February 7, 2015 at 4:04 am

I hàd a laminate floor installed in my brand new house about a year ago. Installer left the job unfinished with exposed laminate pieces and exposed concrete around the house. Several days after the install I noticed the floor felt sticky and the bottom of my feet turned black.I could literally scrape the black stuff off the bottom of my feet. I also developed pneumonia several months later and spent 2 months in intensive care and 18 days on life support in respiratory failure. I also had a very healthy beautiful cat in September of 2014 who weighed 21 pounds and was beautiful. On January 24th at about 5 pounds she died. I am wondering if there are VOCs from my floor leaching on to my feet and on my cat. I will investigate having an air quality test done in the house but I’m finding what I am reading very concerning and very scary. My phone number is area code 402 379 0171. If anyone knows anything I would appreciate a call. Thank you in advance for your response.

Pat Peteson February 9, 2015 at 5:44 pm

I purchased a Schon engineered floor from Lumber Liquidators, it is made in china and now I am concerned about the formaldehyde, I read where this company has sold bad flooring. That their main offices were raided by government officials.
How can i find out if I have problem? How do It est for this issue

Leave a Comment

Notify me of followup comments via e-mail. You can also subscribe without commenting.