Formaldehyde Emissions

Formaldehyde in Your Home

iStock 000003699790XSmall Formaldehyde Emissions

Formaldehyde is a compound chemical made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that is found literally everywhere, since it occurs naturally and is synthesized for industrial use in everyday products. The list of household and personal care products that contain small amounts of formaldehyde is endless, and it can also be found in processed wood products, like furniture, siding, and flooring. While it is a very useful chemical used to make clothes permanent-pressed, as a preservative, and as part of the makeup of adhesive products, it is also dangerous and exposure can wreak havoc with your health in high concentration.

Reactions to formaldehyde vary. Some people have no reaction, while others have severe and potentially life-threatening response to exposure. Symptoms include eye, nose, and throat irritation, respiratory difficulties like wheezing and coughing, skin rash, headaches and fatigue, and in some cases, extreme allergic reactions. Allergies can develop at any time, even in a person who has never been prone to them. Formaldehyde is also a suspected carcinogen and is proven to trigger attacks in people with asthma.

The good news is that formaldehyde emissions decrease over time, so a house built in the 1970s before there were any emission standards in place is not likely to still leach formaldehyde gas into your home. The most exposure occurs when the wood product is newly installed. Formaldehyde, unlike some other chemicals found in the home, does not accumulate in the fat cells over time.

Source of Formaldehyde Emissions

A great deal of wood flooring is manufactured of layers of wood particles or veneers pressed together and sealed with adhesives containing urea formaldehyde resin. Low-end flooring, even made from materials that you expect to be “green” can be manufactured with this adhesive, and have formaldehyde emissions of 0.237ppm as a result. Because the real danger is in the manufacturing process, it’s a mistake to assume something is eco-friendly because it is made from an eco-friendly product. Before you make a decision to buy, make sure you get all the facts.

Formaldehyde Ratings

European standards recommended in 2000 by the European Panel Industry defined formaldehyde emissions ratings. Original ratings included E1, measuring 9mg/100g and below, E2, measuring greater than 9mg/100g to below 30mg/100g, and E3, measuring a greater than 30mg/100g ratio. Pressure for more stringent standards led to a new ratings classification, E0, based on emissions measuring 0.5mg per liter and below. Europeans test methodology is based on the Perforator Test Method, which measures the formaldehyde levels inside the wood specimen.

Japan has also defined formaldehyde emissions ratings. The Japanese JIS/JAS Formaldehyde Adhesive Emission Standards, defined by the set forth by the Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) and Japanese Agricultural Standards (JAS) departments, use a different testing methodology, the Desiccator Test Method which measures emissions released from the wood. Ratings are assigned in four categories, F*, F**, F***, and F****, with F**** having the lowest level of formaldehyde emissions below 0.005 mg/m2h. Comparing these two standards is difficult due to the different methods and to different units of measurement.

The United States has been slow to address this concern, but a rating system released in 2007 by the California Air Regulatory Board (CARB) aims to correct that. The Airborne Toxic Control Measure (ATCM) specifies staggered implementation dates ranging from 2009 to 2010 (depending on product) for a two-phase plan that calls for compliance on emissions levels in particleboard, MDF, thin MDF and hardwood plywood. CARB studies suggest that up to 5% of formaldehyde emissions are generated by composite wood products.

Phase 1 of the CARB plan already in effect requires that adhesive formaldehyde emissions measure equal to or less than 0.08 ppm (parts per million), a figure that exceeds OSHA standards already in play.

Phase 2, set for January 1, 2010, will force formaldehyde emissions in adhesives even lower, to 0.05 ppm, a higher standard than that of the European E0.

Logistical Reality

The cost of trying to regulate a global building industry is significant on every level. Enforcement of a U.S. standard presents a problem of staggering proportion in terms of manpower and logistics, considering how much processed wood is imported from overseas and the sheer volume of product that would have to be monitored. For U.S. manufacturers, the burden of retooling to meet new standards falls to them and ultimately to the consumer, because the cost is likely be passed on.

The Composite Panel Association (CPA) and other industry leaders have voiced some concerns about this ruling and asked for modifications. Citing costs and the difficulty of testing finished products, Bill Perdue, of the American Home Furnishings Alliance, says the impact could be tremendous, especially as it affects small manufacturers, like thousands of cabinet and furniture makers. Businesses located in California will face a distinct disadvantage in supply.

For the California Air Regulatory Board, the choice was clear and the vote unanimous, health concerns supersede cost. Expectations are that the rest of the country will follow suit, and U.S. manufacturers will be eager to get onboard and stay ahead of legislation sure to follow.

The Future is Here

There are already products on the market that have low VOC (volatile organic compound) emissions, some of them for years. In order to know exactly what you’re getting, find out what rating the flooring has. Look for E0, E1, F****, P1 or P2 CARB ratings for the most environmentally sound investment, and if the flooring is to be glued down, ask for VOC-free adhesives. It may cost a little more, but cleaner air will be worth it.

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Logan’s Room Makeover
May 22, 2014 at 11:49 am

{ 46 comments… read them below or add one }

david chapman October 12, 2010 at 3:47 am

Do the Vanier or Jaspar lines have any engineered hardwood with a VOC free construction?
Are either made in China?

Rob Jones October 12, 2010 at 7:38 pm

Hey David,
This learning centre tries to be as broad as possible when it comes to product information. The absolute best thing to do with questions about specific brands that BuildDirect carries would be to call in 1 877 631 2845 or email This sounds kind of like a sales pitch, I know. But, those contact details will allow you to talk with one of our wood flooring guys, who spend a lot of time with the specific products you’ve mentioned here.

I hope that helps, even a little bit. Thanks for your question. :-)

Robin March 2, 2011 at 6:41 pm

Can radiant heating increase the toxicity in Formaldehyde based wood flooring

anon July 13, 2011 at 3:29 pm

Yes, heat and moisture can “activate” the formaldehyde causing it to off-gas. Hope you’re not doing anything for the next couple of weeks.

cin July 27, 2011 at 9:39 pm

Am i able to hire someone or something to test for form. emmissions in my already installed hardwood floors?

Chad Hogan September 14, 2011 at 7:04 pm

I have a real problem that I cant fix. I have a rental house that is only 2 years old that has a distinct smell in it. After the process of elimination we pulled up the laminate floor and had it tested for the formaldehyde content. The results were 430mg/kg of formaldehyde content. The manufacturer product data sheet indicates 0.021ppm of residual formaldehyde. We then pulled up all of the flooring and replaced it but the smell still lingers. Could the formaldehyde permeate into the sheet rock, cabinets etc??? If so how long does it take to get rid of the smell.

Any help would be greatly appreciated!!

Uncle John December 27, 2011 at 2:41 am

Regarding laminate flooring made with formaldehyde:

Wth the planks well flushed together and the laminate coating on top, how much formaldehyde can possibly be out-gassing?

Concerned. Thank you.

Linda Janney February 15, 2012 at 4:28 pm

I just got laminate floors installed this is the 3rd room same flooring as the other rooms & no problems with the other 2 but this one the smell is so strong I get sick just going in there my eyes burned all night. What can be done to reduce the smell?

Kim April 8, 2012 at 7:13 pm

What brands did you use? I’ve got to decide by tomorrow if I’m get engineered wood, wood, or laminate. We’ve got dogs. I wanted the lowest VOC… thanks for any info! Kim

Rodney Noriega April 9, 2012 at 10:01 pm

[comment amended]

John Smith April 22, 2012 at 12:53 pm

How do I convert European emission standards to the CARB standard?

Online search says, 0.1mg/100mg = 1ppm

Which would mean that the european E1 standard 9mg/100g = 90ppm !!!

Now, the CARB Phase 1 standard is 0.08ppm. So the European standard is MUCH worse!

Is this correct?

- John

Sparkie April 28, 2012 at 5:53 am

Dear Rodney,

I am about to purchase a condo built about 11-20yrs ago. The cabinets have laminate drawers and shelves is this still a worry for me and will it be off gassing still?

I do walk into the condo which they just put in a brand new PERGO floor and immediately my mouth drys, nose runs, and eyes tear within about 15 min. If I take the PERGO flooring out will the other laminates still be a problem for me? I am very senstive to formaldehyde and have asthma. Pls help asap. I am supposed to counter this weekend.

I thought of taking off the PERGO and just putting the new soft ceramic in the kitchen and bathroom and carpet in the rest of the living room and bedrooms.

The kitchen cupboards have been in for anywhere from 11-20 yrs depending on when each 4 plx was built , mine was one of the later ones so I suspect it was built in 1997.
How long can they off gas??
Pls help.

Jennifer July 3, 2012 at 3:13 am

Just installed 1200+ square feet of engineered wood made by earth werks which I understand is made in China. Not until after installation was I aware of possible dangers of formaldehyde. I can not find anything that tells me what standard if any this wood meets. I have called the company itself, spoken to CARB, and researched online. Is there someway I can find out what level of formaldehyde this wood is emitting to make sure it is safe?

Thank you,

Rodney Noriega July 3, 2012 at 4:04 pm

Hi Jennifer,

You would have to contact the retailer that you purchased it from to find the Formaldehyde Release Emission. With regards to formaldehyde release emissions, look for the E1 European Standard for safe levels of emission, which are stricter than those found in North America. To qualify for E1, product must be under 15 points per million (PPM).


Kathy July 16, 2012 at 9:54 pm

Our house was recently contaminated with an odor neutralizing powder..The insurance co. decided to ozone our house for 3 days…I have been told the powder contains turpenes that do not mix with the ozone and cause formaldehyde…can this ever be removed? this is wide spread throughout the house on a large level. We had the burning eyes, mouth and throat. We inhaled this for over 20 days. How can we get rid of this?

Barbara October 1, 2012 at 11:42 pm

We are considering putting wainscoting in our new baby’s room and bought it from Home Depot. The spec from Georgia Pacific doesn’t say if it is formaldehyde treated or not. The panels are in our garage and have a strong odor. Should we return them and get the formaldehyde free to be safe?

Ma Lan January 8, 2013 at 1:12 am

Hi Rodney:
We just install laminate floor in our house and I am very worried about the emmison of formaldehyde. Is there any way I can hire a company or get a test kit to test the formaldehyde emmison level?
We appreciate your help.

Ma Lan

Rodney Noriega January 8, 2013 at 7:23 pm

Hi Ma,

You would need to contact the source of where you bought the flooring from. You would need to confirm with them if the floors are safe for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and what standards they comply with formaldehyde release emissions.

[comment amended]

Eric Rupert January 9, 2013 at 9:00 am

re: John Smith — Conversion

Dear Forum & John,

Did you ever receive a response to this calculation — and if so did you find it to be accurate? I am interested as well as to how this converts.


Eric Rupert


How do I convert European emission standards to the CARB standard?

Online search says, 0.1mg/100mg = 1ppm

Which would mean that the european E1 standard 9mg/100g = 90ppm !!!

Now, the CARB Phase 1 standard is 0.08ppm. So the European standard is MUCH worse!

Is this correct?

– John

Susan Hubbard February 1, 2013 at 2:50 am

I just installed Shaw laminate flooring that was suppoed to meet CARB P1 or even CARB P2. I was told they also were Greenguard certified. I now can not live in my condo because of respiratory issues and did an indoor quality air test by Home Air Check that says the formaldehyde levels in the condo are Elevated at 81 ng/L or 65 ppb. They say that NIOSH recommends 20 ng/L or 16 ppb. I am buying an air filtration system by Lennox, but am wondering is this going to be a long-term problem (i.e. life of the floor), or short-term? Looking online it says laminate should off-gas within a few weeks. This floor was installed at the end of December 2012, 1 month ago. I’ve tried room air purifiers and opening the windows and doors, however think the levels that were tested last week show that this is not helping at all.
Thanks for ANY info, suggestions, etc., on steps to take to reduce, eliminate the formaldehyde

Zach February 18, 2013 at 4:14 am

I live in China and just signed a lease for a newly decorated house. The floors were installed 2 months ago and are made of a lower-end laminate. There are zero standards here and after reading much literature I am now very concerned. We are supposed to move this Saturday, the 23rd. Should I even consider living there? Is there any way to test the emissons level before I make a decision?

Thank you.

Leah March 12, 2013 at 6:38 pm

I’m not sure if I’m allowed to link to other sites here, but I will and it can be deleted if necessary.

Anyway, in regards to Eurpoean v. CARB emissions equivalents, I found a very helpful chart on page 2 of this PDF:

I also have a question for Rodney:

We are interested in buying strand bamboo for our home, but I am very sensitive to chemicals and allergens in general. Would buying a carton of the bamboo flooring and leaving it boxed in our home help to evaluate it for our purposes? Or does it need to be installed for best evaluation?

Thank you for answering these questions. The information is very helpful!

Frank March 28, 2013 at 11:40 pm

Dont do any ENGINEERED WOOD FLOORING! I have had mine for 5 years and it has been making all of us sick and we thought we were just unlucky until we decided to move out for a while and get an indoor air quality test Results came in and the formaldehyde is at severe levels and the VOC’s is rated as extreme. My wife had a miscarriage due to this crap, my daughter developed severe asthma while in the house……………. i warn everyone.

Martin April 4, 2013 at 12:59 am

Hi there
I have a supplier of Finnish birch plywood that provides me with plywood with an M1 rating which stands for low emission. Does anyone know how to compare that to the E0 or E1 rating?


Betty August 21, 2013 at 9:19 pm

Hi, Susan, I have the Home Air check tool. The formaldehyde level is also elevated. My dealter won’t return the floor. It’s US floor Eco Cork. They claim to be green air certified.

Is anything I could do?

stephane August 31, 2013 at 12:18 am

I just installed thermal treated wood on several walls of my house, the smell is quite pleasant at first but after a few days working on it I could not stand the smell anymore and developped terrible headache and felt like vomitting. Does heat treated wood release formaldehyde or anything else that could trigger such symptomes.

HARRY September 11, 2013 at 10:55 pm


Sandy September 29, 2013 at 3:59 pm

I know this is a really old thread but I want to see if I can get any response from Chad Hogan. Did you ever fix your problem? If so, how? I am having the same issue. What brand flooring was it?

Cindy October 30, 2013 at 10:58 pm

How about solid wood instead of engineering wood/laminate? Are solid wood safer? Thanks!

Josh November 14, 2013 at 1:51 pm

My God! How did anyone ever survive the 20th century? We we exposed to so much chemical soup! Oh my………..

vicki fleming January 14, 2014 at 1:10 am

I work as a designer in a wood shop where the carpenters are using lots of chinese birch plywood. Two truck loads of this plywood was delivered to our workspace in November (5,000sf warehouse) and I and several others have been sick ever since. We all thought it was just touches of the flu but they are lasting for weeks. Terrible coughing, fatigue, low grade fever at times, sinus issues. I went to the Dr. and he gave me a Zpack. It did not help any of my symptoms. I was away from the warehouse over the holidays and the symptoms did subside a bit. As soon as I returned to work they returned with a vengeance. Is there a test of some kind to perform to the workspace to detect hazardous conditions?

owen January 15, 2014 at 1:06 am

i had floating floor on three levels of my house .we are all getting sick from it .when we took it out it left a strong smell behind .one floor had to paint to get rid of the smell.floating or click flooring is not safe.get rid of it .

lori January 19, 2014 at 6:20 am

ripped up carpet and found that my entire house has flooring which states a warning
“Urea formaldahyde resin may release formaldelhyde vapors in low consentrations..can irriate eyes and upper respiratory systems epecially in those suseptable to those such prone to allergies or respiratory….etc.” the entire house is that. House was built in around 1995…actually a modular home. belonged to my husband who passed in 2005; died from lung cancer; he also had asthma as a child… there any recourse for replacement of this flooring? Is the manufacturor responsible for this? Wasnt there something regarding this in the trailors they gave to people in the Katrina disaster? My nephew now 20 yrs old, moved here 6 months ago, had asthma as a child….now experiencing same symptoms as a child, recently received treatment from doctor, unknown reason for reoccurance of this. Another note is that we have had 3 animals die from cancer related illnesses in the last 8 years, and prior to that my husband had 3 more animals who died from cancer as well. Could it be related in some way? Are we at risk here? I am just asking….not blaming.

John Balogh March 23, 2014 at 5:28 pm

Installed Schon engineered 5 weeks ago, despite airing out the room, the dog and I have
developed. respiratory issues. Is tear out the only fix, what options for flooring would you
suggest? Contacted seller 1 week ago of issue but as yet no response to a warranty.
Was rated E1.

Rob Jones March 28, 2014 at 8:21 pm

Have you looked into arranging an air quality check? That might help to confirm that the symptoms you’re experiencing are related to chemicals. You can either arrange a professional to come to your home, or you can buy a kit and do it yourself. It might be a good idea to try the latter, and then arrange for the former in any case.

Darlene Ralls June 12, 2014 at 2:29 pm

We purchased 28 boxes Cali Bamboo strand woven fossilized click lock flooring. We set the individual boards out on pallets as instructed to let them acclimate to the house before installation. The odor emitted from the boards was very pungent. I finally put a fan in the room to allow the smell to go to the outdoors leaving all the windows open. However, I got a sore throat, headache, fever and have chest congestion that is not going away. The symptoms are flu/cold like. After two weeks, the odor has subsided, but I suspect the formaldehyde emissions are very dangerous to the elderly, kids, dogs, and anyone working with this product. There is no warning label from the manufacturer as to the danger of inhaling or handling this flooring product. This flooring needs to be investigated as to the level of emissions and labeled as such warning of the formaldehyde fumes.

Walter Chapman July 27, 2014 at 12:33 am

What new flooring does not contain formaldelhyde?

Lexi August 10, 2014 at 2:48 pm

The strangest thing about manufactured wood flooring emmissions (like cheap carpet emmissions) is that the cloud of emmissions has “hang time”. Even when the offending flooring and carpeting is removed, the noxious smell does not leave the room the flooring was removed from. It mostly hangs over the original space, and doesn’t really seep into other rooms unless blown by a fan. But trying to remove the contaminated air is a major issue – is there a remediation company that can set up a temporary air exchange to suck out all the bad air?

I only have college-level chemistry to go by, but it seems that the higher molecular weight of the urea-formaldehyde containing emmissions keeps it hovering over the original location. If the molecular weight of the compound is heavier than air, it cannot easily spread, even if it is “volatile” which simply means that it a gaseous form of the compound WILL not move out of the solid floor product and into the air. Yes it exists in gas form, but it is much heavier. I would love the opinion here of a professional chemist. Back to the main issue – once installed, even if removed the noxious product emissions will be very difficult to remove from the enclosed area it was installed in. Also unlike bad odors like strong perfume, cigarette smoke or food odors like curry, I have found that treating an area that previously contained manufactured wood or cheap synthetic carpeting does not get better with an ozone shock treatment. Ozone shock is very effective for removing natural odors and smoke, but useless on urea formaldyhyde. Why? Is it that UF is not as highly charged a particle? Ozone is very highly charged, binds to other charged particles, and neutralizes them. But UF seems resistent – wold love to know why.

This is important to me because Manufactured Wood flooring aggrevates my health. When they became pervasive in the construction boom in the late 90s, I thought I was losing my mind when I couldn’t find a new house that I could purchase – they all contained manufactured wood flooring among other UF containing manufacturing products, plasticizers in the cement, and noxious synthetic carpeting. I took an unusual approach to dealing with this issue – I became a real estate agent. I needed to know exactly what was causing my problems when I was exposed (aversion to the smell, brain fog, racing heart). What I found was that almost every piece of “new construction” that was part of a complex or coroporate-built housing from 1995 on contained these irritants. One-of-a-kind privately built new housing commissioned by wealthy people often used more premium materials and had less of this problem. Homes built with real wood, wool or high quality synthetic rugs were tolerable. These homes were often built by people who were raised in high-end communities like Princeton and had different standards for quality. On the other side of the millionaire spectrum were the people who commissioned new homes, typically is developements, where the cheap manufactured wood products were common, and these homes had all the same problems for me as a cheaper K Hov or the like type of home.

So my solution was to purchase a 1930s home – all original materials, original flooring, original plaster. I use all non-VOC products for maintenance, repair and upgrades. It is the ONLY way to live if you are chemically sensitive.

Recently I began looking at the possibility of moving to apartment living to get out of the never-ending maintenance of owning a home. I discovered the only apartment buildings that were a possiblity were those built through 1995-ish. And there is major trouble brewing for the chemically sensitive in the older buildings – as I toured them, I realized that every condo owner who sublets is replacing their old floors and carpets with manufactured wood floors. It is nearly impossible in the NY/NJ area to find a rental that does not contain MF wood floors or cheap synthetic carpets. I have had to give my real estate agent strict instructions – first inquire about the floors – unless they are original or put in before 1995 do not show me the apartment.

David Beierl August 15, 2014 at 1:59 am

0.1 milligram per 100 –>milligramsgrams<– is the same as one milligram per kilogram, or one ppm. I think this is what the original poster meant.

[Quote] Which would mean that the european E1 standard 9mg/100g = 90ppm !!!
Now, the CARB Phase 1 standard is 0.08ppm. So the European standard is MUCH worse!
Is this correct? [End quote]

No, it's not correct. It's not really possible to directly compare the two standards, because according to this article E1 is a standard for formaldehyde content inside the product as measured by a specific test presumably at some specific point in the product's manufacture or subsequent lifetime; while CARB phase 1 is a standard for formaldehyde emissions into the air under some set of standard conditions and measurement specified by CARB.

European standard E0 is a standard for emissions, similar to CARB; but it still may not be trivial to directly compare them because they may specify different test conditions and/or measurement methods. Sometimes the devil is in the details in things like this.

mara August 25, 2014 at 2:17 pm

We gave heated flooring in our basement and we are about to install laminate flooring. Will formaldehyde be released every time we heat the floors?

mara August 25, 2014 at 2:20 pm

We have heated flooring in our basement and we are about to install laminate flooring. Will formaldehyde be released every time we heat the floors? Should we use hardwood instead? Can someone recommend a safer floor product? Tile? Wood?

Joanne Thompson August 27, 2014 at 11:33 pm

We have lost 3 dogs- a lab/mastiiff mix, a german shepherd, and a golden retriever to cancer in the last 3 years. i am devastated. we have laminate flooring by Passion for Floors. It was made in China, and the box states compliant with California 93120 phase 1. My sister just told me about the laminate connection. Would you please help me and tell me if these floors could have caused this? Thank you so much.

Lisa September 6, 2014 at 2:36 pm

Were thinking about installing an engineered flooring in our house and after reading this blog not sure if it’s a wise move.The brand is an American made company, (Anderson) it is in the virginia vintage line the species is walnut and color is trace. How do I find out if this is a low formaldehyde low voc product? Do you have any information for me on how to research this product. We would also use the Bostiks vapor lock adhesive which they say is a low voc
Product 0.1% is there anything else I need to look at? Thank You!

Alan September 26, 2014 at 8:46 pm

Taking off Your Shoes Before Entering House.
You may be surprised to learn that one of the simplest and most effective ways of going toxic-free is taking off your shoes before or upon entering your home. By adopting this one easy habit, you will virtually leave thousands of potentially harmful (not to mention disgusting!) chemicals at the door.

Ever wonder what all we step on each day? Do you know what exactly is on the bottom of your shoes? Chances are you don’t want to know, but if you’re dragging it around your floors and into your carpet, you are—without a doubt—potentially contaminating your whole family.

Picture this:

You stop to fill up your gas tank on your way home from work. You step out and stand where John Doe just dripped gasoline before you pulled up, then you head home and walk through your living room to pick up little Suzy and give her a kiss. Suzy sits back down on the floor to pick up her puzzle pieces, then decides she wants some cheerios and grabs a handful and shoves them in her mouth.
Are you with us here?
Little Suzy just put John Doe’s gas in her mouth because you didn’t take off your shoes.
If you give even brief consideration to how many chemicals and items of pure disgust you walk through each day with your shoes, it won’t be a difficult decision to start removing them at home. You’ll do your family a world of good … and there’s possibly nothing simpler than this one intelligent change in your daily routine.

cathy September 28, 2014 at 2:16 pm

Hi. We just installed laminate flooring in the attic and was unaware of the potential toxicity of this product. I checked the box and it is labled as Carbon phase 2. Do I need to be concerned about the flooring? This room will be used as a play/art room. I have a six year old. What do you think? Thanks.

Rob Jones September 29, 2014 at 8:46 pm

Hi Cathy, I don’t know the type of flooring you’ve purchased and don’t have the final word. But, generally speaking any product that uses glue or plastic in its manufacture has some level of toxicity in it. This includes laminate flooring, which uses glue in its core layer. That doesn’t mean that the flooring should be characterized by toxicity. The reason the ratings exist is to show you that the product has been tested and has fallen within certain parameters so as to make it safe to install.

When in doubt, my advice is to contact our product experts if you still feel uneasy. I hope that helps!

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